Global summit to strike deal on phase-out of HFCs


The Guardian:

Governments will address the law of unintended consequences when they meet this week to revise a global treaty and try to eliminate the use of a group of greenhouse gases used in fridges, inhalers and air conditioners.

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were hailed as the answer to the hole in the ozone layer which appeared over Antarctica in the 1980s because they replaced hundreds of chemical substances widely used in aerosols which depleted the thin layer of ozone which protects the Earth from harmful rays of the sun.

One hundred and ninety-seven countries signed the historic 1987 agreement which phased out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and similar hydrochlorofluoro carbons (HCFCs) and has seen gradual closure of the two polar ozone holes.

But concern has been mounting at how their substitute is undermining the landmark Paris climate agreement and could hamper attempts to keep global warming below dangerous levels.

“The use of hydrofluorocarbons is growing. Already, the HFCs used in refrigerators, air conditioners, inhalers … are emitting a gigaton of CO2-equivalent pollution into the atmosphere annually. If that sounds like a lot; it is. It’s equivalent to the emissions from nearly 300 coal-fired power plants every single year,” the US secretary of state, John Kerry, told a UN meeting on the Montreal protocol earlier this year…

…“It is in everyone’s interests to phase out HFCs as soon as possible,” said Gaby Drinkwater, Christian Aid’s policy officer. “As people in developing countries seek more air conditioners and refrigerators, a heavy expansion of HFCs could deal a significant blow to the ambition of the Paris agreement and set back any progress made on keeping global warming to 2C.”

However, environmentalists with a long memory say that governments could have easily avoided the release of tens of billions of tons of HFC chemicals if they had listened to scientists in the 1980s.

“HFCs were always known to have the potential to increase global warming. We solved the ozone problem of ozone but governments chose not to address the climate-changing potential of their substitutes even though they knew about it,” said Dr Robin Russell-Jones, former director of the skin tumour unit at the St John’s Institute of Dermatology in London.

“If it takes over a quarter of a century to fix a simple technological problem, then what chance is there for the world community to solve global warming?” he added.

In 1989, he wrote in one of Britain’s leading medical journals, the Lancet: “Most scientists want to see the Montreal protocol widened to include substitutes like HCFC22. If uncontrolled [they] will be adding 15% to the global warming effect of carbon dioxide by the year 2030.”

My emphasis.

Airport expansion’s disastrous effects, near and far


The Guardian, 24 October 2016:

Nigel Milton appears to be living in a parallel universe. Under current EU legislation, it is impossible to give the go-ahead for a third runway without an avalanche of legal challenges. Heathrow breaches the EU air quality directive for a number of pollutants, but nitrogen dioxide is the most intractable as local traffic and congestion is bound to increase in line with passenger numbers. The strategy being adopted by Heathrow management depends upon new diesel engines emitting less pollutants than current models, but this strategy is doomed to failure as recent studies demonstrate that even Euro 6 diesel engines emit much more NO2 on the road than they do in lab testing.

I suspect the reason that Theresa May has delayed a parliamentary vote on Heathrow (Report, 19 October) is to give the UK parliament time to invoke article 50, and repeal the relevant EU air quality directive. However, the chances of such a manoeuvre getting past the House of Lords is close to zero.

Dr Robin Russell-Jones
Chair, Help Rescue The Planet